Operant Conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence. According to this principle, behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, and behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated.

In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning relies on reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated, and behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out. Selective reinforcement and positive reinforcement are both forms of Operant Conditioning.

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