Progressive benchmarks of learning and growth, which may be interfered with or stunted by the experience of trauma, and/or by substance abuse.

(birth-1 year) In ascending order:

  • displays social smile,
  • rolls over by self,
  • able to sit alone without support,
  • babbling, plays peek-a-boo,
  • eruption of first tooth,
  • pulls self to standing position,
  • walks while holding on to furniture or other support,
  • says "mama" or "dada" in proper situations,
  • able to drink from cup,
  • understands "NO" and will stop activity in response,
  • walks without support

(1-3 years) In ascending order:

  • masters walking,
  • recognizes gender differences,
  • uses up to 8 words and understands simple commands,
  • able to run, pivot and walk backwards,
  • uses spoon to feed self,
  • can name pictures of common objects,
  • can point to body parts,
  • imitates speech of others,
  • begins pedaling tricycle,
  • learns to take turns in play with other children,
  • able to feed self neatly with minimal spill,
  • able to say first and last name,
  • able to draw a line when shown,
  • dresses self with minimal help,
  • learns to share toys without parent direction

(3-6 years) In ascending order:

  • rides tricycle well,
  • able to draw a circle,
  • able to draw stick figures,
  • hops on one foot,
  • catches a bounced ball,
  • understands size concepts,
  • enjoys rhymes and word play,
  • able to skip,
  • increased independence in performing tasks without parental assistance,
  • begins to ride bicycle,
  • understands time concepts,
  • begins to recognize written words,
  • starts reading skills,
  • starts school

(6-12 years) In ascending order:

  • understands and is able to follow sequential directions,
  • beginning skills for team sports,
  • begins to lose baby teeth and erupt permanent teeth,
  • reading skills develop further,
  • peer recognition becomes important,
  • girls begin to demonstrate secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, axillary hair, breast development), first menstrual period may occur

(12-18 years) In ascending order:

  • boys exhibit secondary sexual characteristics (chest, facial, axillary and pubic hair growth voice changes, penile enlargement),
  • movement into adult height/weight category,
  • cognitive abilities move from simply concrete to abstract,
  • peer acceptance and recognition is vital
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