ICCD Clubhouse Model

The ICCD (International Center for Clubhouse Development) Clubhouse Model is a day treatment program for rehabilitating adults diagnosed with a mental health problem. The goal of the program is to contribute to the recovery of individuals through use of a therapeutic environment that includes responsibilities within the Clubhouse (e.g., clerical duties, reception, food service, transportation, financial services), as well as through outside employment, education, meaningful relationships, housing, and an overall improved quality of life. Individuals who participate in the Clubhouse are called "members." Fundamental elements of their participation include openness and choice in type of work activities, choice in staff, and a lifetime right of reentry and access to all Clubhouse services.

Each individual is welcomed, wanted, needed, and expected each day and is considered a critical part of a community engaged in important work. A core component of the program is the "work-ordered day," the structure around which daily activity is organized. The day-to-day operation of the Clubhouse is the responsibility of members and staff, who work side by side in a rehabilitative environment. Other core components include transitional, supported, and independent employment through which members can secure jobs at prevailing wages in the wider community; access to community support, such as housing and medical services; assistance in accessing educational resources; "reach-out" to maintain contact with all active members; participation in program decisionmaking and governance; and evening, weekend, and holiday social programs.

Clubhouses are certified and coordinated internationally through the ICCD. Clubhouse staff, who function as generalists, maintain a caseload, including managing employment placements, housing issues, and access to community supports. They also are responsible for the ongoing work of the Clubhouse and help organize and participate in social activities. Staff have diverse life experiences and backgrounds in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, counseling, social work, and education. Clubhouse members do not pay dues or membership fees. Their attendance is voluntary, and they can participate as little or as much as they choose.

Descriptive Information

Areas of Interest Mental health treatment
Co-occurring disorders
Outcomes Review Date: August 2010
1: Employment
2: Quality of life
3: Perceived recovery from a mental health problem
Outcome Categories Employment
Quality of life
Ages 18-25 (Young adult)
26-55 (Adult)
55+ (Older adult)
Genders Male
Races/Ethnicities American Indian or Alaska Native
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino
Race/ethnicity unspecified
Settings Other community settings
Geographic Locations Urban
Rural and/or frontier
Implementation History The first Clubhouse, Fountain House in New York City, began in 1948 when former patients of a New York psychiatric hospital began to meet informally. The "club" they organized was intended to be a support system for people diagnosed with mental illness rather than a treatment program. The ICCD Clubhouse Model has been implemented in urban, suburban, and rural areas with a wide variety of ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic groups. Serving approximately 55,000 individuals annually, more than 300 Clubhouses operate in the United States and throughout the world, in countries such as Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Kosovo, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Russia, Scotland, South Africa, Sweden, and Uganda. (The International Clubhouse Directory can be accessed at http://iccd.org/search_form.php.)

Clubhouses are supported and coordinated internationally through the ICCD, formed in 1994. The ICCD coordinates training and ongoing technical support on the model through 10 international training bases and maintains both an international certification process and international standards for Clubhouse programs.
NIH Funding/CER Studies Partially/fully funded by National Institutes of Health: Yes
Evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies: Yes
Adaptations Materials are available in eight languages other than English: Chinese, Finnish, German, Hebrew, Korean, Polish, Russian, and Spanish. In addition, the ICCD Clubhouse Model has been adapted for individuals diagnosed with traumatic brain injury.
Adverse Effects No adverse effects, concerns, or unintended consequences were identified by the developer.
IOM Prevention Categories IOM prevention categories are not applicable.